Stage 1 | Subject outline | Version control

Australian Languages — Revival Language Stage 1
Subject outline

Version 2.0
Version 2.0 for teaching in 2022. Accredited in August 2019 for teaching at Stage 1 from 2020. 

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Stage 1 | Subject outline | Subject description

Subject description

Australian Languages — Revival Language is a 10‑credit subject or a 20‑credit subject at Stage 1.

In this subject, ‘Australian Languages’ refers to all Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander languages and cultures of Australia. (For information about the teaching and learning of Auslan, another Australian language, please see the Auslan Continuers Level subject outline.)

The importance of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander languages, cultures, communities, and knowledge is affirmed through the study of Australian Languages. Students can study:

  • Australian Languages — First Language. This subject is mainly for students who use an Australian Language as their first language.
  • Australian Languages — Additional Language. This subject is mainly for students who wish to study an Australian Language as an additional language. A language chosen for this subject will be a well‑resourced language that has a sizeable first‑speaker base.
  • Australian Languages — Revival Language. This subject is mainly for students with a heritage in an Australian Language that has been marginalised since colonisation.

Students of Australian Languages — Revival Language learn to communicate using an Australian Language that has been marginalised since colonisation. The language may have been experiencing a revival over time or as part of more recent processes.

Students develop understanding about how some Australian Languages have managed to survive despite the impact of colonial policies and practices on Australian Languages and cultures. They explore the relationship between language and cultural knowledge, and consider the broader significance of the loss of Australian Languages.

Informed by closely related Australian Languages that remain vibrant, students develop an awareness of the sound and written systems and structures of and protocols for using [Revival Language]. They compare these systems and structures with English, in order to develop an awareness of the unique sounds and structures of Australian Languages. They identify ways in which [Revival Language] is likely to differ from what was spoken as a first language before European settlement.

Drawing on continuing oral traditions, students move between oral and written representations of the language. Recognising the centrality of written representations of Australian Languages within most revival contexts, students develop skills in representing [Revival Language] in written form.

Students develop understandings about the process of reclaiming sound and written systems and structures of languages that are no longer spoken, and explore the linguistic and cultural relationships that existed between language groups before and after colonisation. They develop their understanding of language ecologies, including the ways that languages come into contact with each other historically, and the impacts of language contact.

Students consider the role of language‑revival programs within the ongoing processes of cultural renewal and reconciliation. They reflect on how their language learning relates to these processes.


Stage 1 | Subject outline | Principle and protocols

Principles and protocols

The following guiding principles and protocols have been identified as fundamental to the development of all Australian Languages programs.

It is necessary that:

  • each Australian Language is recognised as belonging to a group of people who are its custodians
  • program developers (e.g. teachers, school leaders, or schooling sectors) consult, involve, and inform custodians about all aspects of the teaching of their languages
  • the wishes of the relevant Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities are canvassed, respected, and adhered to
  • the ultimate authority regarding the choice of target language rests with the custodians
  • all programs have the approval of the custodians of the target language. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities differ in their attitudes to teaching a language to people not associated with the home group, especially if it is taught outside its home Country. Some Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities may disapprove of their language being taught in schools. Some communities strongly approve of the teaching of their language to others in different locations, while other groups may endorse the teaching of their language only in its home territory to their own people
  • sufficient time is allowed for thorough consultation processes in accordance with local situations
  • thorough preparation takes place before any program is established. Preparation may require substantial time and resources, and will depend on factors in the school and community, including existing resources
  • the overriding outcomes of all Australian Languages programs are the strengthening of the target language and the promotion of Australian Languages and linguistic diversity in Australia
  • appropriate teaching and learning processes are developed according to local situations. A team approach involving community people who are Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander language and cultural specialists, linguists, and teachers should be adopted in most situations
  • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples’ input into all aspects of the programs is maximised. Local school programs should encourage cooperation between schools, community members, and organisations with an interest in Australian Languages
  • programs should actively encourage the participation of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people as teachers and/or students.

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Capabilities

The capabilities connect student learning within and across subjects in a range of contexts.

The SACE identifies seven capabilities.

Stage 1 | Subject outline | Capabilities | Literacy

Literacy

In this subject students extend and apply their literacy capability by, for example:

  • extending their knowledge and skills of language learning and language revival
  • extending their understanding of the relationship between written and oral language systems
  • developing their understanding of the nature of Australian Languages as systems of meaning
  • learning from and about local language materials available through community organisations and in local, state, and national archives and libraries
  • identifying and exploring features of an Australian Language
  • building their understanding of words and word origins
  • appreciating how writing systems are developed
  • recognising and experimenting with language patterns and structures
  • understanding and applying cultural norms and protocols associated with learning, using, researching, and reviving Australian Languages
  • building their knowledge and understanding of how language works
  • making connections and comparisons within and/or between languages
  • developing their skills of listening, speaking, performing, reading, viewing, and/or writing
  • engaging with and reflecting on ways of using language to create meaning
  • gaining insight into ways in which external influences impact on language use.

Stage 1 | Subject outline | Capabilities | Numeracy

Numeracy

In this subject students extend and apply their numeracy capability by, for example:

  • using and understanding patterns, order, and relationships within an Australian Language
  • extending their understanding of concepts such as time and number in different cultures, as expressed through Australian Languages
  • extending their understanding of differences between Aboriginal and non‑Aboriginal number systems
  • extending their understanding of culturally specific ways of ordering place and space
  • considering the usefulness and reliability of numerical data.

Stage 1 | Subject outline | Capabilities | ICT capability

Information and communication technology (ICT) capability

In this subject students extend and apply their ICT capability by, for example:

  • exploring ways in which technology influences and changes language use
  • using technologies when thinking about and documenting [Revival Language]
  • engaging with and/or creating digital resources
  • using technologies to decode and encode elements of language systems
  • learning about ways of verifying the integrity of digital information and sources
  • appreciating ways in which technologies inspire curiosity about language and meaning
  • using technologies to record, shape, and refine personal language.

Stage 1 | Subject outline | Capabilities | Critical and creative thinking

Critical and creative thinking

In this subject students extend and apply their critical and creative thinking capability by, for example:

  • understanding their own language(s) and/or culture(s) through engagement with [Revival Language]
  • making comparisons and drawing connections within and/or between languages to develop their knowledge and understanding of the nature of language variation and change
  • understanding and creating links between existing and new knowledge
  • exploring and explaining features of [Revival Language]
  • exploring and explaining existing and emerging language patterns and structures
  • applying their understanding of the power and function of languages
  • reflecting on the processes involved in mediating meaning within and across languages and cultures.

Stage 1 | Subject outline | Capabilities | Personal and social capability

Personal and social capability

In this subject students extend and apply their personal and social capability by, for example:

  • extending their understanding that Australian Languages belong to the communities who are identified as the linguistic and cultural custodians
  • appreciating the value of [Revival Language] as a storehouse of cultural and social knowledge and ways of thinking for the communities who speak and identify with, or are reviving, the language
  • increasing awareness and understanding of ways in which their own language(s) and culture(s) shape their actions, personal behaviour, thoughts, attitudes, perceptions, and identity
  • making connections between language learning, language and cultural restoration, and group and individual identity
  • extending their understanding that language revival and revitalisation are important to reviving and revitalising cultural and spiritual practices
  • extending their understanding that, for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students, learning [Revival Language] can be fundamental to strengthening identity and self‑esteem and, for non‑Aboriginal students, learning [Revival Language] provides a focus for the development of cultural understanding and reconciliation
  • extending their understanding and appreciation of concepts such as diversity, distribution, interdependence, and status as they apply to the state and nature of Australian Languages
  • identifying the uses of [Revival Language] in contemporary society
  • appreciating the role of languages education and research in reviving and revitalising [Revival Language]
  • drawing on the insights, knowledge, and experience of community members and other sources of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander voices
  • interpreting and reflecting on their own intercultural experiences
  • reflecting on their own set of assumptions, beliefs, values, and perspectives, as one of many
  • understanding and appreciating their own role as learners, users, and mediators of [Revival Language].

Stage 1 | Subject outline | Capabilities | Ethical understanding

Ethical understanding

In this subject students extend and apply their ethical understanding capability by, for example:

  • extending their understanding that Australian Languages are uniquely and irreplaceably Australian
  • understanding, respecting, and applying cultural norms and protocols associated with learning, reviving, using, and researching Australian Languages, including community consultation protocols
  • making connections between language learning and social justice and equity for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples
  • contributing to social cohesiveness through better communication and understanding
  • extending their understanding of the impact of some key government policies, legislation, and judicial processes on heritage and identity.

Stage 1 | Subject outline | Capabilities | Intercultural understanding

Intercultural understanding

In this subject students extend and apply their intercultural understanding capability by, for example:

  • extending their understanding that revival and revitalisation of [Revival Language] is of great importance to both Aboriginal and non‑Aboriginal Australians, and contributes to national identity
  • contributing to the reconciliation processes through increased linguistic and intercultural competence
  • extending their understanding of relationships between Australian Languages, cultures, and identities in a national and global context
  • extending their understanding of how cultural concepts and practices affect ways in which people see the world, interact, and communicate with others
  • considering and reflecting on their own view of the world in context, as one of many
  • responding with empathy to what the relationship between language and identity means for individuals and communities
  • extending their understanding of the intrinsic relationship between language, culture, Country, and spirituality
  • noticing, comparing, and reflecting on assumptions, values, and ways of knowing.

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Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander knowledge, cultures, and perspectives

In partnership with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities, and schools and school sectors, the SACE Board of South Australia supports the development of high-quality learning and assessment design that respects the diverse knowledge, cultures, and perspectives of Indigenous Australians.

The SACE Board encourages teachers to include Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander knowledge and perspectives in the design, delivery, and assessment of teaching and learning programs by:

  • providing opportunities in SACE subjects for students to learn about Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander histories, cultures, and contemporary experiences
  • recognising and respecting the significant contribution of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples to Australian society
  • drawing students’ attention to the value of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander knowledge and perspectives from the past and the present
  • promoting the use of culturally appropriate protocols when engaging with and learning from Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples and communities.  

Stage 1 | Subject outline | Learning requirements

Learning requirements

The learning requirements summarise the knowledge, skills, and understanding that students are expected to develop and demonstrate through their learning in Stage 1 Australian Languages — Revival Language.

In this subject, students are expected to:

  1. communicate using [Revival Language]
  2. understand and explain features of language structures and cultural knowledge of one or more Australian Languages
  3. explore and understand the context of the revival of [Revival Language]
  4. reflect on own learning from and with Aboriginal people and language resources
  5. reflect on the relationship between the revival of [Revival Language] and processes of cultural renewal and reconciliation.

The history of Australian Languages means that written materials in or about a language being studied may not be extensive. Students are encouraged to use and engage with as wide a range of resources as possible. Resources include, but are not limited to:

  • spoken materials, such as talks, conversations, and interviews, whether filmed, recorded, transcribed, or experienced personally
  • written materials, such as books, articles, diaries, letters, and administrative records
  • artwork, music, songs, and other creative materials
  • online materials.

Stage 1 | Subject outline | Content

Content

Stage 1 Australian Languages — Revival Language is a 10‑credit subject or a 20‑credit subject that consists of the following three focus areas:

  • [Revival Language]
  • language‑revival processes
  • cultural renewal and reconciliation.

For a 10‑credit subject and a 20‑credit subject, students study all three focus areas.
The three focus areas are discussed in more detail below.

Stage 1 | Subject outline | Content | Revival language

[Revival language]

Students develop and extend their knowledge and skills in communicating in [Revival Language], consistent with available language, cultural, and teaching resources. They build their understanding of, and respect for, culturally specific norms and protocols.

For the purposes of this subject, the term ‘revival’ may refer, as appropriate, to processes of reclamation and reconstruction.

Through the study of [Revival Language], students develop the skills to move between written and oral forms of language, and explore and explain culturally specific meanings and uses of words and phrases. They understand and explain features of language structures, and the relationship between language, culture, and community.

In studying language structures, students consider sound patterns, word formations, sentence structures, and speech patterns.

Drawing on continuing oral traditions, students make comparisons with closely related Australian Languages of the surrounding region and/or with other Australian Languages, according to available resources.

Suggested learning in this focus area may include:

  • communicating in [Revival Language]
  • language ecologies
  • language practices in [Revival Language]
  • cultural features of [Revival Language]
  • comparing languages
  • mapping languages.

Stage 1 | Subject outline | Content | Language-revival processes

Language-revival processes

Students develop awareness of how languages are reclaimed from continuing oral traditions, historical documentation and understanding, and current knowledge of Australian Languages. They develop awareness and appreciation of ways in which records are interpreted and [Revival Language] is shaped for use in the twenty‑first century, as a result of decisions made by the custodians, and application of linguistic techniques.

Students develop an awareness of ways in which [Revival Language] is likely to differ from what was spoken at the time of European settlement, and explore why this is so.

Suggested learning in this focus area may include:

  • principles and protocols
  • reconstructing a language
  • filling the gaps
  • expanding the vocabulary
  • language variation and change
  • how decisions about language use are made
  • strategies for reintroducing [Revival Language].

Stage 1 | Subject outline | Content | Cultural renewal and reconciliation

Cultural renewal and reconciliation

Students develop an appreciation of the language and culture of the custodians of [Revival Language], and the importance that language and culture play in the lives of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. Through learning [Revival Language], they gain insights into early contact history and the impact of colonial policies and practices on Australian Languages and cultures. Students also develop an appreciation of the role that language plays in cultural renewal and in reconciliation.

Suggested learning in this focus area may include:

  • language and identity
  • language, self‑esteem, and well‑being
  • renewal of cultural practices
  • language as a vehicle for reconciliation
  • connecting with our past
  • forging pathways to the future.

Stage 1 | Subject outline | Evidence of learning

Evidence of learning

Assessment at Stage 1 is school based.

The following assessment types enable students to demonstrate their learning in Stage 1 Australian Languages — Revival Language:

  • Assessment Type 1: Language Folio
  • Assessment Type 2: Language Inquiry.

For a 10‑credit subject, students provide evidence of their learning through four assessments. Each assessment type should have a weighting of at least 20%. Students complete:

  • three language folio tasks (one resource performance, one response to resources, and one reclamation skills task)
  • one language inquiry.

For a 20‑credit subject, students provide evidence of their learning through six assessments. Each assessment type should have a weighting of at least 20%. Students complete:

  • four language folio tasks (at least one resource performance, at least one response to resources, and at least one reclamation skills task)
  • two language inquiries.

Stage 1 | Subject outline | Assessment design criteria

Assessment design criteria

The assessment design criteria are based on the learning requirements and are used by teachers to:

  • clarify for students what they need to learn
  • design opportunities for students to provide evidence of their learning at the highest possible level of achievement.

The assessment design criteria consist of specific features that:

  • students should demonstrate in their learning
  • teachers look for as evidence that students have met the learning requirements.

For this subject the assessment design criteria are:

  • communicating
  • understanding
  • identities and ecologies.

The specific features of these criteria are described below.

The set of assessments, as a whole, must give students opportunities to demonstrate each of the specific features by the completion of study of the subject.

Communicating 

The specific features are as follows:

C1 Use of language to communicate accurately and appropriately in [Revival Language]. 
C2 Collaboration with others.

Understanding  

The specific features are as follows:

U1 Understanding of the relationship between written and oral systems in [Revival Language]
U2 Knowledge and understanding of the relationship between language, culture, and community.
U3 Understanding and explanation of language and cultural features.

Identities and Ecologies

The specific features are as follows:

IE1 Reflection on own learning from and with Aboriginal people and language resources.
IE2 Exploration and understanding of the context of the revival of [Revival Language].
IE3 Reflection on the relationship between the revival of [Revival Language] and the processes of cultural renewal and reconciliation.

Stage 1 | Subject outline | School assessment

School assessment

The school assessment component for Stage 1 Australian Languages — Revival Language consists of two assessment types:

  • Assessment Type 1: Language Folio
  • Assessment Type 2: Language Inquiry.

Stage 1 | Subject outline | School assessment | Assessment Type 1: Language Folio

Assessment Type 1: Language Folio

For a 10‑credit subject, students undertake three language folio tasks comprising:

  • one resource performance
  • one response to resources
  • one reclamation skills task.

For a 20‑credit subject, students undertake four language folio tasks comprising:

  • at least one resource performance
  • at least one response to resources
  • at least one reclamation skills task.

At least one task should involve students working collaboratively. Students may work in a school or community‑based group, or any other appropriate collaboration. The group may collaborate face to face or in a digital environment, including social media forums, or a combination of both.

Each student undertaking a collaborative task is required to submit an individual reflection reflecting on their role in, and contribution to, the collaborative task. The reflection should include discussion about own learning from and with Aboriginal people and language resources.

Resource performance

Students perform a task in which they move between a written and a spoken resource in [Revival Language]. Although the resource should be primarily in [Revival Language], English may be used where students are providing explanations of language and/or cultural features, or in comparisons between languages.

The performed resource may be created for a variety of purposes, including language sharing and exchange, sharing information, expressing creativity and imagination, and/or interpreting other resources.

Students may either make use of an existing resource in [Revival Language] or, where appropriate and in keeping with language protocols, create their own resource.

Students demonstrate their understanding of how the written form of [Revival Language] represents the sound system of the language.

In using language to communicate accurately and appropriately, they demonstrate understanding of features of language structures and cultural knowledge of [Revival Language].

Possible resource types include, but are not limited to:

  • performance in [Revival Language] of a short play
  • documentary
  • autobiography or biography
  • welcome to or acknowledgment of Country speech.

Response to resources

Students explore and interpret one or more resources in [Revival Language] by responding to questions on the resources in English and/or [Revival Language], as appropriate.

Students explore and explain language and cultural features of resources and demonstrate their understanding of the relationship between written and oral systems in [Revival Language].

A resource may be a full resource or part of a resource, and may be an oral, written, or multimodal resource.

Students may use dictionaries and/or word lists as supports.

Reclamation skills

Students explore the processes and protocols of language reclamation and demonstrate their understanding.

Students make connections between language, culture, and community and ensure that they adhere to the appropriate practice and protocols, respecting and understanding the custodians of [Revival Language].

Students reflect on the relationship between the revival of [Revival Language] and the processes of cultural renewal and reconciliation.

Tasks should be presented in multimodal form, and each student’s response or contribution should be the equivalent of a maximum of 4 minutes in English, with examples in [Revival Language], as appropriate.

Tasks could include, for example:

  • community discussion about the principles and protocols of language revival
  • language building using available resources
  • expanding vocabularies based on known language and grammatical patterns and structures
  • investigation of language variation and change
  • investigation of domains for language use
  • developing collaborative strategies and/or resources for reintroducing revival languages.

For this assessment type, students provide evidence of their learning primarily in relation to the following assessment design criteria:

  • communicating
  • understanding
  • identities and ecologies.

Stage 1 | Subject outline | School assessment | Assessment Type 2: Language inquiry

Assessment Type 2: Language inquiry

For a 10‑credit subject, students undertake one language inquiry.

For a 20‑credit subject, students undertake two language inquiries.

In a language inquiry, students investigate the post-colonial decline and/or revival of [Revival Language], using available resources of [Revival Language].

The inquiry should focus on one or more of the following:

  • the pre‑colonial community of [Revival Language] speakers and their relations with surrounding Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander language groups
  • the process of language reclamation, including the value of existing written documents and/or recordings, and/or first‑hand knowledge to the revival process
  • how knowledge about the structures of other Australian Languages might inform the revival of [Revival Language]
  • the processes of language loss, including reference to what is known of the last speakers of the [Revival Language] and at what stage the language’s records were collected.

Students produce an oral, written, or multimodal response in which they communicate their:

  • understanding of the context in which the [Revival Language] has been lost and/or is now being revived
  • exploration and explanation of language and cultural features.

The response should be written in English, with examples in [Revival Language] as appropriate. It should be a maximum of 5 minutes if oral, 500 words if written, or the equivalent in multimodal form.

For this assessment type, students provide evidence of their learning primarily in relation to the following assessment design criteria:

  • understanding
  • identities and ecologies.

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Performance standards

The performance standards describe five levels of achievement, A to E.

Each level of achievement describes the knowledge, skills, and understanding that teachers refer to in deciding how well students have demonstrated their learning on the basis of the evidence provided.

During the teaching and learning program the teacher gives students feedback on their learning, with reference to the performance standards.

At the student’s completion of study of a subject, the teacher makes a decision about the quality of the student’s learning by:

  • referring to the performance standards
  • taking into account the weighting of each assessment type
  • assigning a subject grade between A and E.

Stage 1 | Subject outline | Performance standards

Performance standards

Stage 1 performance standards for Australian Languages — Revival Language can be viewed below. You can also download in Word format [DOC 238KB].

To learn more about what performance standards are, how they are used, and other general information, see performance standards and grades

  Communicating Understanding Identities and Ecologies
A

Consistently accurate and appropriate use of language to communicate in [Revival Language].

Highly effective and respectful collaboration with others.

Comprehensive understanding of the relationship between written and oral systems in [Revival Language].

In‑depth knowledge and understanding of the relationship between language, culture, and community.

Thorough and astute understanding and explanation of language and cultural features.
Insightful reflection on own learning from and with Aboriginal people and language resources.

Comprehensive exploration and understanding of the context of the revival of [Revival Language].

Insightful reflection on the relationship between the revival of [Revival Language] and the processes of cultural renewal and reconciliation. 
B

Mostly accurate and appropriate use of language to communicate in [Revival Language].

Mostly effective and respectful collaboration with others.

Thorough understanding of the relationship between written and oral systems in [Revival Language].

Mostly in‑depth knowledge and understanding of the relationship between language, culture, and community.

Mostly thorough understanding and well‑considered explanation of language and cultural features.

Mostly insightful reflection on own learning from and with Aboriginal people and language resources.

Well‑considered exploration and understanding of the context of the revival of [Revival Language].

Mostly insightful reflection on the relationship between the revival of [Revival Language] and the processes of cultural renewal and reconciliation.

C

Generally accurate and appropriate use of language to communicate in [Revival Language].

Generally effective and respectful collaboration with others. 

Appropriate understanding of the relationship between written and oral systems in [Revival Language].

Sound knowledge and understanding of the relationship between language, culture, and community.

Sound understanding and explanation of language and cultural features.

Competent reflection on own learning from and with Aboriginal people and language resources.

Competent exploration and understanding of the context of the revival of [Revival Language].

Sound reflection on the relationship between the revival of [Revival Language] and the processes of cultural renewal and reconciliation.

D

Occasionally accurate and some appropriate use of language to communicate in [Revival Language].

Some effective collaboration with others.

Some understanding of the relationship between written and oral systems in [Revival Language].

Basic knowledge and understanding of the relationship between language, culture, and community.

Some understanding and basic explanation of language and cultural features. 

Some reflection on own learning from and with Aboriginal people and language resources.

Some exploration and understanding of the context of the revival of [Revival Language].

Some reflection on the relationship between the revival of [Revival Language] and the processes of cultural renewal and reconciliation.

E

Limited accurate and appropriate use of language to communicate in [Revival Language].

Limited collaboration with others.

Minimal understanding of the relationship between written and oral systems in [Revival Language].

Limited knowledge and understanding of the relationship between language, culture, and community.

Limited understanding and explanation of language and cultural features.
 

Attempted reflection on own learning from and with Aboriginal people and language resources.

Limited exploration and understanding of the context of the revival of [Revival Language].

Attempted reflection on the relationship between the revival of [Revival Language] and/or the processes of cultural renewal and reconciliation.


Stage 1 | Subject outline | Subject changes

Subject changes

Any changes to this subject will be recorded here.